Windows Server 2003
Service Pack 1 (SP1)
Driver Development Kit (DDK)
method of generating dirs files has changed. The dirs file is now created by
the Microsoft® Windows®
Driver Development Kit (DDK) setup program during kit installation. If the dirs file needs to be
recreated after installation of the kit, a command-line tool (makedirs) is
supplied in the \bin\x86 directory. The uninstall program also updates
the dirs file if Basic Uninstall is selected.
DDK Build Environment
the Microsoft® Windows Server™ 2003
Service Pack 1 (SP1) build environments in this DDK to build drivers
that use new features or functionality available only in
Windows Server 2003.
the Microsoft Windows XP build environments in this DDK to build
drivers that do not use new functionality as described above, and that are
targeted for either Windows XP or both Windows Server 2003 and
Windows XP. The Windows XP build environment in this kit contains
minor updates to the DDK shipped with Windows XP with no service packs
the Microsoft Windows 2000 build environments in this DDK to build
drivers that are designed to run on Windows 2000 only, or
Windows 2000 or later operating systems. The Windows 2000 build
environment in this kit includes an update of headers and libraries for
Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (SP3).
Support Conditional Compilation Based on Build Environment
environment variable DDK_TARGET_OS has been introduced to allow conditional
testing in the sources file to determine if a driver is being built
in the Windows 2000 build environments. This variable is set to
"WinNET", "WinXP", or "Win2K", respectively. For
more information, see "DDK_TARGET_OS" in the DDK documentation.
Building DDK Samples
(See also Sample Issues)
samples included in this DDK build are without errors or warnings in the
Microsoft® Windows Server™ 2003 build environments and function
properly on Windows Server 2003.
Some of the samples may use new
features or functionality present for the first time in
Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). These samples will not
build properly in the Windows® XP or Windows 2000 build
environments. Similarly, some
samples use features or functionality first present in Window XP. These
samples will not build properly in the Windows 2000 build environments.
you build the entire kit, samples that are not supported in the active build
not be built
because of one (or more) of the following issues:
- Changes to the driver's
- Changes to one of the
driver's makefile files
- Changes to a dirs file
result is that the correct set of drivers is always built when a Command Prompt
window is opened for a given build environment and the build -cZ command is issued from the DDK's src directory.
a Command Prompt window is opened for a given build environment, a user can
manually change directories using the cd command to the driver directory
that uses features or functionality that are not supported in that environment.
If the user attempts to build such a driver in an unsupported environment, and
the driver was blocked from building by a dirs file, the build command fails
with a variety of errors and/or warnings; this is the expected behavior.
Expected Warnings When Building
Samples Under the Windows XP and Windows 2000
samples in the Windows Server 2003 SP1 DDK are not supported on
Windows XP and/or Windows 2000. These samples now generate a warning
when they are built in a non-supported build environment. The warning, which
appears in the build warning log, is in the following format:
BUILDMSG: Warning : The sample ""
is not valid for the current OS target
Firmware Interface (EFI)
who want to build 64-bit Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) executable images
for the Intel Itanium processor family can use the 64-bit DDK build
environments for compiling and linking images. This includes EFI-compliant
system firmware, EFI applications and option ROMs. EFI drivers and applications
will only run in the pre-boot EFI firmware environment before
Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP is loaded. At this time, only
the 64-bit compiler and linker have been tested with the EFI Sample
Implementation releases and the Toolkit. For further information about EFI
specifications and sample source code, go to http://developer.intel.com/technology/EFI.
Changes to the
Windows 2000 Build Environment
headers have been added to more completely match the headers shipped for the
Windows XP environment. This was necessary to allow some of the samples to
compile when built in the Windows 2000 build environment.
creating the Windows 2000 build environment using the Start menu, the
environment variable BUILD_OPTIONS is set to exclude many samples from default
compilation under this environment. This has the following effects and
limitations, which apply only to the Windows 2000 environment:
- Running build -cZ from the
DDK root now results in a clean build with no errors or warnings.
- Not all samples are built.
- Does not prevent changing
directories to an arbitrary sample directory and attempting to build it.
When doing so, samples that do not work correctly in the
Windows 2000 build environment will still produce errors and/or
Microsoft® Windows® DDK ships a complete set of tools for building drivers.
These tools have been upgraded from those released with the Windows XP
DDK. As in the Windows XP DDK, Microsoft Visual C++® is no longer required
to be installed.
the included tools for all Windows Server™ 2003,
Windows XP, and Windows 2000, drivers. This version of the DDK does
not support building drivers using a version of Visual C++
other than the one supplied with the DDK.
Windows Millennium Edition (Me) drivers, such as Microsoft DirectX® drivers for
that platform, may require Visual C++ version 6.0 to be installed for use
regardless of the platform being used to build the drivers. Later versions of
Visual C++ will not work in the Windows Me build environment.
toolset has not been fully tested for use other than driver development.
Development work on this toolset is not complete.
Checking and DriverEntry
Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) DDK enables the /Gs
compiler option for both free and checked drivers built in the
Windows Server 2003 build environment. This compiler option
implements stack buffer overflow checking. To support this feature, the
Windows Server 2003 build environment set the driver entry point to
GsDriverEntry. GsDriverEntry performs some brief initialization, and then calls
the driver's DriverEntry entry point.
with using this switch at Microsoft has shown that the /Gs option adds very
little overhead to a kernel module and simultaneously helps to counter a
potential security risk.
overflow checking can be turned off by setting the environment variable
BUFFER_OVERFLOW_CHECKS to 0 in the Windows Server 2003 build
<BASEDIR>\SetEnv64.bat file has been merged into a <BASEDIR>\SetEnv.bat
file. The Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP build environments
are supported with the <BASEDIR>\SetEnv.bat file; however, the command
line has been updated. For more information, see "Using the SetEnv.bat
Command Line" in
the DDK documentation.
should be built in the build environment of the earliest operating
system that the driver supports. Therefore, a driver that needs to run on
Windows XP and Windows 2000 should be built in the Windows 2000
enable your driver to use the additional features that are available on a more
recent operating system, you can use technology-specific functions, such as
testing is required to determine whether a driver built for a more recent operating
system works properly on an earlier operating system.
kernel variable KeNumberProcessors indicates the number of active CPUs
in the system on which a driver is running. The definition for this variable
has been changed in the Windows XP versions of ntddk.h and wdm.h from a
pointer to a value. The Windows 2000 definition of this variable required
that KeNumberProcessors be
dereferenced (for example, *KeNumberProcessors).
As a result of the variable’s change in , drivers built in the
Windows XP build environment must not dereference this variable (for
that fail to use KeNumberProcessors
correctly receive an "illegal indirection" error at compile time.
of the declaration used, drivers that properly reference KeNumberProcessors, according to the environment in which they are
built, work properly on Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, and
Windows 2000. Therefore, a driver that properly references KeNumberProcessors, and that is built
in the Windows 2000 build environment, receives the proper value for this
variable when the driver is run on Windows Server 2003,
Windows XP, or Windows 2000.
improvements have been added to the Windows XP and later implementations
of singly-linked lists (SLists).
The Windows 2000 implementation of SLists remains in the DDK to enable
drivers built on Windows 2000 to run unchanged on Windows XP and
later systems. The functions affected are ExInterlockedPopEntrySList()
as well as ExAllocateFromPagedLookasideList(),
Windows XP and later implementation of these functions, by default, is
not binary compatible with the implementation on Windows 2000. If your
driver uses SLists and needs to run on Windows 2000, you should build your
driver in the Windows 2000 build environment. Optionally, you can build
your driver in another build environment and use the Windows 2000 SList
implementation by defining the symbol _WIN2K_COMPAT_SLIST_USAGE at compile
time, before including any other DDK header files.
Obsolete Functions in Your Driver
DDK Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP build environments include a feature
that, when enabled, identifies obsolete functions in your driver. When
the environment variable DEPRECATE_DDK_FUNCTIONS is defined, the compiler
generates a warning message whenever an obsolete function or macro
from ntddk.h is referenced. For more
information about the
obsolete functions, see the DDK documentation.
compiler warning message shows both the line in your source file that invoked
the obsolete function and the line in ntddk.h
where the function is declared. The following example shows an error message:
: error C4996: 'RtlExtendedIntegerMultiply' was declared deprecated
: error see declaration of 'RtlExtendedntegerMultiply'
of the functions that have been declared deprecated in ntddk.h have comments that indicate which, if any, function or
mechanism you should use instead of the obsolete function. For more
information, see the DDK documentation. In the previous example, if you look
at line 3106 of ntddk.h, you'll find
the following declaration, which instructs you to use native 64-bit math
instead of RTL functions:
Use native __int64 math
feature helps developers discover functions in their drivers that are
obsolete. All of the functions that have been declared deprecated in the DDK
have been obsolete at least since Windows 2000. Only a subset of functions
that are obsolete have been actually declared as deprecated. There might be other
obsolete functions, both in ntddk.h
and in other header files that have not yet been declared deprecated. Refer to the
DDK documentation for functions that are obsolete
or currently supported.
The DDK, by default, will not use any pre-defined Include or Library paths
(as specified by the %include% and %lib% environment variables). This is due to
the stand-alone nature of the DDK and to avoid possible conflicts with other
installed source or compiler programs. Any drivers that need to alter the
search path for include files should use Includes=directive in the sources
Microsoft® Windows Server™ 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) DDK
should be used for all WDM audio driver development. Please rebuild your driver
with this DDK to take advantage of recent changes and fixes. As of the
Windows Server 2003 SP1 release, this DDK supports
Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000. This DDK
does not support, nor do we recommend, the development of WDM audio drivers for
Windows 9x. The code samples that are
listed below will work interchangeably on the supported operating systems with
the INF files that are provided with the samples:
- ac97—A sample audio
driver that runs on an Intel motherboard with an integrated AC97
controller. This sample shows how to write a WDM audio adapter driver
that implements WavePci support for a PCI add-in card with scatter/gather
direct memory access (DMA) capabilities. Included with this sample driver are additional
subdirectories that contain sample code that works in conjunction with the
driver. The subdirectories are named as follows:
- cpl—This sample shows how
to write a control panel application. It requires that both the proppage sample DLL and the ac97 sample driver be installed.
- driver—This is the sample
audio driver for the AC97 controller.
- INFViewer—This subdirectory
contains an HTML version of the driver's INF file with hot-linked
references to INF sections and keyword definitions to facilitate easy
- proppage—This sample shows
how to write a property-page DLL that gets loaded by the device manager
when a user elects to display the properties of your device. In addition
to displaying the default property sheets, the device manager also
displays the property sheet that is defined in the sample. This sample
DLL requires that the ac97
sample driver be installed.
- ddksynth—Kernel-mode downloadable
sounds (DLS) synthesizer. This sample can be adapted for a MIDI output device as well.
- dmusuart—MPU-401 miniport
driver for processing Microsoft DirectMusic® and MIDI
input and output streams. This is the source code for the built-in DMusUART
miniport driver in portcls.sys.
Hardware vendors can adapt this sample to write their own custom miniport
- fmsynth—FM-synth miniport
driver for MIDI. This sample driver
provides an interface to a device that implements OPL3-style synthesis. This
is the source code for the built-in FMSynth miniport driver in portcls.sys. Hardware vendors can
adapt this sample to write their own custom miniport drivers.
- gfx—The two GFX samples
appear in the DDK for Windows Server 2003 or later and Windows XP Service
Pack 1 (SP1). These samples implement support
for a sample GFX (global effects) filter:
- driver—This sample GFX
driver performs a simple data transformation on a stereo audio stream
that is played through a pair of USB speakers.
- GFXProp—This sample
implements a property page that the user accesses through the Windows
Multimedia control panel to configure the GFX filter.
- mpu401—Stand-alone sample
adapter driver. This adapter driver implements standard functionality for
an MPU-401 MIDI interface device. The source code for this sample is
quite small because it uses only the system-supplied miniport drivers
that are implemented in portcls.sys.
- msvad—Microsoft Virtual
Audio Device. This is a collection of samples that all use the same
"virtual audio device" in lieu of an actual hardware-based
adapter driver. Each of these samples highlights one of the following
different facets of the WDM audio driver architecture:
support for a non-PCM audio data format.
support for multiple-stream audio with secure audio path (SAP)-protected content. For
information about SAP, see the Platform SDK
support for a single audio stream with SAP-protected content.
support for hardware-accelerated two-dimensional mixing for Microsoft
support for playback of multiple streams of PCM audio data.
support for a PCM audio format that is defined by the
- simple—A skeleton
reference implementation of an audio adapter driver upon which the other
msvad sample drivers are
- sb16—Sound Blaster (SB) 16
sample. This sample implements an audio adapter driver for an
SB-compatible adapter card on an ISA bus.
- stdunk—Standard IUnknown
sample. Skeleton implementation of a standard IUnknown interface
that conforms to the port-class model for using COM in the kernel.
more information about the samples, see the Readme documentation that
accompanies each of these samples in the DDK.
To install the portion of the DDK that contains the WDM audio driver
samples, complete the following instructions:
Run the Windows DDK setup
From the list of component groups that
the setup application displays, under Windows
DDK, select WDM Samples, and
then select Audio Samples.
setup completes, you will find the audio driver samples in the src\wdm\audio
subdirectory under the main directory of your DDK installation.
DDK release includes documentation for developing drivers to run with Windows
Millennium Edition (Me) and Windows 98, but it no longer provides build
environments for Windows Me or Windows 98. If you require those build
environments, and the related tools, refer to the
Windows XP SP1 DDK located in the archive
section on MSDN.
Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1), Windows XP, and Windows 2000 Compatibility
change was made in the memory manager starting with Microsoft® Windows® XP
that affects how functions such as ZwMapViewOfSection
the past (on Windows 2000 and Windows NT® Server 4.0), it was up
to the driver writer to ensure that the same physical page was not mapped with
different caching attributes, which is an error and can cause internal
processor corruption leading to undefined results.
Windows XP and later, the memory manager catches this problem.
That is, when mapping the same physical page, the page must always be mapped
with the same caching attribute. If conflicting attributes are specified by the
caller of the above APIs, the Windows memory manager automatically tries to
determine and use the correct attribute. If the correct attribute cannot be determined,
then ZwMapViewOfSection returns
STATUS_CONFLICTING_ADDRESSES and MmMapLockedPagesSpecifyCache
samples moufiltr and kbdfiltr include INF files that
demonstrate the proper use of the "CatalogFile=" directive. The
catalog files (CATs) included in these samples are not true catalog files,
therefore, installation of the input samples moufiltr
and kbfiltr does not work. To
temporarily fix the installation, edit moufiltr.inf
and kbfiltr.inf by removing the line
that begins with "CatalogFile=" from the version section of each INF
file. Before distributing your drivers that use the "CatalogFile="
INF directive, you must obtain a true catalog file from WHQL.
Under the Japanese System Locale
the system locale has been set to Japanese, the following warnings occur:
: warning RC4093: unescaped newline in character constant in inactive code.
cht\phon\..\ime.rc(37) : warning RC4093: unescaped newline in character
constant in inactive code.
cht\quick\..\ime.rc(37) : warning RC4093: unescaped newline in character
constant in inactive code.
warnings appear in both the free and checked builds. These warnings do not
cause any problems in the resulting drivers.
Warning 314 on IoSetCompletionRoutine
When building a driver
with PREfast, each invocation of the IoSetCompletionRoutine macro
results in PREfast warning 314:
Incorrect order of
operations: bitwise-or has higher precedence than the conditional-expression
Ignore this warning. It
is a false positive result, not a driver error. To suppress this warning,
use the WINPFT filter. However, the filter might also suppress the reporting
of similar, but valid, errors in the driver.
the Microsoft® Windows Server™ 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) DDK, not all files may compile correctly
on a Windows® 2000 computer using the FusionManifestValidator tool. This
will be fixed for future releases.
the Windows Server 2003 SP1 DDK, Itanium-based and x64-based platform
versions of the IrDA tools are not available.
Tracing Tools: Tracepdb,
The Windows Server 2003
SP1 DDK documentation includes a new section, "Tools for
Software Tracing," which provides updated documentation for Tracepdb,
Tracelog, and Tracefmt, and new documentation, including a Software Tracing
FAQ and instructions for tracing during system boot.
documentation lists some tool parameters that do not work in the versions
of the tracing tools included in the Windows Server 2003 SP1 DDK.
Specifically, the following tool parameters do not work:
We apologize for any
Late Breaking Release Notes
Please see our page on
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/DevTools/default.mspx for any updates.
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